Know Your English ( Volume 2 )

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Words Frequently Confused, the second volume in the four volume series, Know Your English, is based on S. Upendran’s popular weekly column published in The Hindu. It contains a selection of about 480 pairs of words that are frequently confused. Each entry gives the meaning of the words and points out the difference between them. Examples are also provided showing how the words can be used in everyday contexts. Some of the entries also contain information about the pronunciation and the etymology (origin) of the word. About the Author S. Upendran has been writing the column, Know Your English, in The Hindu, since 1992. He is a Professor in the Department of Materials Development at the English and Foreign Languages University, Hyderabad. The selections in this book are those that featured between 1992 and 2011. Table of Contents 1. A few, few, quite a few 2. Abbreviation, acronym 3. Academic, academician 4. Ache, pain 5. Acquit, exonerate 6. Acute, chronic 7. Adhesive, cohesive 8. Adjoin, adjacent 9. Admission, admittance 10. Adverse, averse 11. Advice, advise 12. Adviser, advisor 13. Aestivate, hibernate 14. Affect, effect 15. Afflict, inflict 16. Ageing, aging 17. Agnostic, atheist 18. Ago, before 19. Alibi, excuse 20. All right, alright 21. Allude, elude 22. Alone, lonely 23. Alongwith, along with 24. Alphabet, letter 25. Alternate, alternative 26. Although, though, albeit 27. Alumni, alumnae, alumna, alumnus 28. A.M., P.M. 29. Ambassador, High Commissioner 30. Ambiance, ambience 31. Ambivalent, indifferent 32. Amid, among, amongst 33. Among, between 34. Amoral, immoral 35. Ample, enough 36. Amuse, bemuse 37. Annex, annexe 38. Another, other 39. Anyway, anyways 40. Apartment, flat 41. Apoplexy, apocalypse 42. Apposite, opposite 43. Appraise, apprise 44. Argument, quarrel 45. Army, military 46. Aroma, smell 47. Arrested, detained 48. Artist, artiste 49. As if, as though 50. As scheduled, on schedule 51. Assassinate, murder 52. At/on weekends 53. Autograph, signature 54. Autopsy, post mortem 55. Avoid, evade 56. Award, reward 57. Await, wait 58. Baby boomer, Generation X, Generation Y 59. Backward, backwards 60. Baggage, luggage 61. Bail, parole 62. Banquet, dinner 63. Barber, hairstylist 64. Battle, war 65. Beach, shore 66. Beat, hit 67. Beautiful, pretty 68. Beehove, behove 69. Believe, believe in 70. Biannual, biennial 71. Bibliography, reference 72. Bigot, fanatic 73. Bimonthly, fortnightly 74. Biodata, cv, resume 75. Birding, birder 76. Blind in, blind to 77. Blue-collar, pink-collar, white-collar 78. Bravado, bravery 79. Break a sweat, break into a sweat 80. Breeze away, breeze through 81. Briefly, shortly 82. Browse, peruse 83. Buzzword, password 84. Call at, call on 85. Call for, call upon, drop in on 86. Call off, put off 87. Callous, callus 88. Capsize, overturn 89. Cemetery, graveyard 90. Cent percent, hundred percent 91. Centre, center 92. Change, alter 93. Chauffeur, driver 94. Chew at, chew out 95. Childish, childlike 96. Choose, pick 97. Chubby, flabby 98. Cite, quote 99. Citizen, resident, netizen 100. Client, clientele 101. Climate, weather 102. Co-brother, brother-in-law, co-brother-in-law 103. Collaborate, corroborate 104. Colourful, coloured 105. Command of, command over 106. Comic, comical 107. Compare, contrast, liken 108. Compare to, compare with 109. Compel, impel 110. Complacent, complaisant 111. Complement, compliment 112. Complex, complicated 113. Comptroller, controller 114. Compulsive, impulsive 115. Concert, recital 116. Condole, condolence 117. Confidant, confidante 118. Contagious, infectious 119. Continually, continuously 120. Convicted, sentenced 121. Cool down, cool off 122. Corrigenda, errata 123. Cost, price 124. Couch potato, fax potato, mouse potato 125. Cousin, half brother 126. Crises, crisis 127. Criteria, criterion 128. Criticism, critique 129. Cronyism, nepotism 130. Crush, infatuation 131. Cupboard love, puppy love 132. Curd, curds 133. Custom, habit 134. Cut, crack a joke 135. Cynic, sceptic 136. Damage, damages 137. Damsel, spinster 138. Day by day, day-to-day 139. De facto, de jure 140. Dead, departed 141. Dead cheap, dirt cheap 142. Deadly, deathly 143. Deal in, deal with 144. Defence, defense 145. Deism, theism 146. Demise, death 147. Deny, refute 148. Dependent, dependant 149. Depromoted, demoted 150. Desire, aspire 151. Despatch, dispatch 152. Despise, hate 153. Deter to do, deter from doing 154. Detract, distract 155. Died, killed 156. Different from, different than 157. Dine in, dine at 158. Dinner, supper 159. Disassemble, dissemble 160. Debar, disbar 161. Disburse, disperse 162. Discover, invent 163. Discreet, discrete 164. Discuss, discuss about, discussion about 165. Disguise, guise 166. Disinterested, uninterested 167. Dispense, dispense with 168. Displace, misplace 169. Disposed of, disposed off 170. Dispute, quarrel 171. Dissatisfied, unsatisfied 172. Disused, unused 173. Drink in, drink down 174. Drop out, dropout 175. Due to, owing to 176. Earmark, hallmark 177. Eatable, edible 178. Eavesdrop, overhear 179. Edgy, nervous 180. Educated, learned 181. Egoist, egotist 182. Effeminate, metrosexual 183. Elder, older 184. Emigrate, immigrate 185. Eminent, famous 186. Emulate, imitate 187. Enclosed, enclosed herewith 188. Energize, enervate 189. English teacher, teacher of English 190. Enough, enough of 191. Envelope, envelop 192. Endemic, epidemic 193. Enquiry/ inquiry, query 194. Erstwhile, former 195. Escort, convoy 196. Especially, specially 197. Even so, even though 198. Every day, everyday 199. Ex, former 200. Exalt, exult 201. Expel, rusticate 202. Expect, hope 203. Expire, die 204. Extempore, impromptu 205. Extinct, extinguish 206. Fable, parable 207. Faculty, faculties 208. Fairly, rather 209. Familiar with, familiar to 210. Far-fetched, far-reaching 211. Fares, prices 212. Farther, further 213. Fat chance, slim chance 214. Fat, plump, buxom 215. Fatal, fateful 216. Father-in-laws, fathers-in-law 217. Faux pas, blunder 218. Feminist, hominist, masculinist 219. Fictitious, facetious 220. Fight against, fight with 221. Fill in a form, fill out a form 222. Financial, fiscal 223. First cousin, second cousin, cousin once removed 224. Flammable, inflammable, non flammable 225. Floor, ground 226. For sale, on sale 227. Forbear, forebear 228. Forbid, prevent 229. Foreword, preface 230. Forget, disremember 231. Forthwith, immediately 232. Fragile, frail 233. Friend, companion 234. Funds, money 235. Gawk, gaze 236. Genius, prodigy 237. Gentle, genteel 238. Get dressed, dress up 239. Gift, present 240. Give up, give in 241. Glance, glimpse 242. Godown, warehouse 243. Good Morning, good afternoon, good night 244. Gourmet, gourmand 245. Graceful, gracious 246. Grumble about, grumble at 247. Half pants, shorts 248. Handsome woman, beautiful woman 249. Handy, portable 250. Hanged, hung 251. Harbour someone, house someone 252. Hat, cap 253. Have to, must 254. Head Master, Principal 255. Heartfelt, hearty 256. Heartthrob, sweetheart 257. Histrionics, hysterics 258. Hoard, horde 259. Homely, at home 260. Homemaker, housewife, househusband 261. Home, house, residence 262. Homicide, manslaughter, murder 263. Homophone, homonym 264. Honourable, honorary 265. Horrible, horrific 266. Hospice, hospital 267. Hostellite, hosteller 268. Hotel, motel 269. Hotel, restaurant 270. Housekeeper, housesitter 271. How are you? How do you do? 272. However, how ever 273. However, nevertheless 274. Human, humane 275. Hungry, famished, peckish 276. Ice cool, ice cold 277. Ill sick 278. Ill-informed, misinformed 279. Impasse, deadlock 280. Impassioned, impassive 281. Imply, infer 282. In camera, on camera 283. Incomparable, uncomparable 284. In short supply, in short order 285. In spite of, despite 286. In the end, at the end 287. In time, on time 288. Incidence, incident 289. Infant, toddler 290. Infiltrator, intruder 291. Informer, informant 292. Ingenious, ingenuous 293. Instinct, intuition 294. Intense, intensive 295. Interfere, intervene 296. Interpreter, translator 297. Introvert, taciturn 298. Invaluable, valuable 299. Invite, invitation 300. Its, it’s 301. Jail, prison 302. Journal, magazine 303. Journey, sojourn 304. Judgement, judgment 305. Junk, obsolete 306. Kidnap, hijack 307. Kitchen, mess, pantry 308. Laconic, taciturn 309. Lacto-vegetarian, lacto-ovo-vegetarian, vegan 310. Lanky, tall 311. Lastly, last but not least 312. Lawyer, attorney 313. Lay, lie 314. Learn something by heart/rote 315. Learned, learnt 316. Lease, rent 317. Leave, holiday 318. Leave behind, forget 319. Lecturn, podium 320. Lengthy, long 321. License, licence 322. Life assurance, life insurance 323. Lightning, lightening 324. Likeable, likable 325. Loath, loathe 326. Lonely, lonesome 327. Look at, watch 328. Look over, overlook 329. Look, see 330. Loose, lose 331. Loving child, lovely child 332. Luxurious, luxuriant 333. Man of promise, man of promises 334. Mania, phobia 335. Many, many a 336. Marriage, wedding 337. Martyr, victim 338. Masochist, sadist 339. Maybe, perhaps 340. Medical shop, chemist’s 341. Megalomaniac, kleptomaniac 342. Memento, souvenir 343. Meet, visit 344. Militant, terrorist 345. Misbehaviour, misdemeanour 346. Misfit, unfit 347. Misogamist, misogynist 348. Miss, Ms 349. Missive, letter 350. Mobile, moveable 351. Momentary, momentous 352. Monday through/to Friday 353. Monologue, soliloquy 354. Motherland, fatherland 355. Mouthpiece, spokesperson 356. Movie, movies, cinema 357. Muddle along, muddle around 358. Murder, kill 359. Must, ought to 360. Naked, nude 361. Native place, hometown 362. Naught, nought 363. Negligent, negligible 364. Neophyte, beginner 365. New York minute, Facebook minute 366. Next week, the next week 367. Nickname, pseudonym 368. No priest, not a priest 369. Nonetheless, nevertheless 370. Noticeable, notable 371. Notorious, infamous 372. Obliged, obligated 373. Obtain, attain 374. Occupation, designation 375. Odious, odorous 376. Odour, smell 377. On foot, by foot 378. Overspeeding, speeding 379. Panacea, placebo 380. Partake, take part 381. Partially, partly 382. Passenger, traveller 383. Peek, peep 384. Place, put 385. Plenty, aplenty 386. Portend, portent 387. Possible, probable 388. Practical, practicable 389. Premier, premiere 390. Prepone, advance 391. Prescribe, proscribe 392. Preserve, conserve 393. Prevaricate, procrastinate 394. Prolonged, protracted 395. Proper question, question proper 396. Prophecy, prophesy 397. Purposely, purposefully 398. Push over, pushover 399. Quash, squash 400. Rare, scarce 401. Rational, rationale 402. Re-count, recount 403. Re-cover, recover 404. Referee, umpire 405. Regret, repent 406. Relinquish, surrender 407. Reminisce, remember 408. Reputed, reputable 409. Revue, review 410. Robber, thief, burglar 411. Sachet, sashay 412. Salary, wages 413. Scarce, sparse 414. Scare, scarify 415. Scholarship, stipend 416. Scoot down, scoot over 417. Seasonable, seasonal 418. Sell, sell out 419. Semblance, resemblance 420. Sentimental, emotional 421. Shop, shoppe 422. Should, must 423. Show someone the door, show someone to the door 424. Sicken at, sicken of 425. Similar, identical 426. Simple, simplistic 427. Simpleton, simple minded 428. Sink, drown 429. Smile at, laugh at 430. So far, till now 431. Sob, weep 432. Sometime, sometimes, some time 433. Spare, stepney 434. Speak English, speak in English 435. Spectators, audience 436. Stagger, totter 437. Staircase, stairway 438. Stammer, stutter 439. Stationary, stationery 440. Story, tale 441. Stumble over, stumble on 442. Swap, swop 443. Take care of, take care 444. Talk to, talk with 445. Tasteful, tasty 446. Television serial, television series 447. Thrice, three times 448. Thumb through, leaf through 449. Tiffin, breakfast 450. Timing, timings 451. Tiresome, tiring 452. Too, very 453. Towards, toward 454. Translation, transliteration 455. Treason, treachery 456. Troublemaker, trouble shooter 457. Tryst, rendezvous 458. Unaware, unawares 459. Underemployed, unemployed 460. Up-and-coming, upcoming 461. Up to, until, till 462. Update, up-to-date 463. Utensil, vessel 464. Utopia, dystopia 465. Vacant, empty 466. Varsity, university 467. Vendor, seller 468. Verbal, oral 469. Vertically/ horizontally/ physically/visually challenged 470. Vocation, avocation 471. Voracious, veracious 472. Walkable, walking 473. While, whilst 474. Whiskey, Whisky 475. Wish, desire 476. Word for word, word by word 477. Worrisome, worrying 478. Worthwhile, worth while 479. Yours faithfully, Yours sincerely
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